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Publicado en mayo 2014 | Foto de Róger Lindo

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Despacho desde El Salvador • Una nueva era

Con el triunfo electoral del FMLN, El Salvador inicia una nueva fase como nación al tiempo que el triunfo de la izquierda cambia el balance en las fuerzas políticas de Centroamérica.

Por Róger Lindo

San Salvador • El tránsito por el limbo ha terminado. El Salvador tiene ya un presidente legalmente acreditado y reconocido dentro y fuera de sus fronteras y, por segunda vez consecutiva en su historia, un gobierno de izquierdas rige el país.

Fidel Rauda se alista para votar en San Salvador, capital de El Salvador, durante la primera vuelta de las elecciones presidenciales el pasado 2 de febrero. El izquierdista Frente Faraundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional (FMLN) es el más opcionado para ganar durante la segunda vuelta electoral el 9 de marzo de 2014. / Róger Lindo

El último escollo, una solicitud de amparo presentada por el partido Alianza Republicana Nacionalista (ARENA) pidiendo la invalidación de la elección por la supuesta comisión de fraude fue declarada improcedente en la Corte Constitucional de la Corte Suprema de Justicia. Fue el punto final. Enseguida llegó el reconocimiento del gobierno de los Estados Unidos al presidente electo Salvador Sánchez Cerén, el exguerrillero que se puso traje y corbata, que se estrena con un mensaje de moderación, y dice estar abierto a escuchar a los que no son de su partido, el Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional (FMLN).

El bando perdedor, ARENA, que representa los intereses de las élites criollas y los de su entorno, no tiene más camino que reemplazar sus mandos y adaptarse a los nuevos tiempos si quiere seguir siendo una fuerza a tomar en cuenta. Pero nadie olvida que en los días posteriores a la segunda ronda, su dirigencia condujo a sus seguidores por un camino escabroso, cargado de teorías conspirativas y frases fuertes. “Estamos en pie de guerra”. “Vamos a luchar si es preciso con nuestra vida”. “La Fuerza Armada está lista para hacer democracia“. Eran las palabras belicosas, colindantes con el llamado a sedición, vertida por su candidato, Norman Quijano, al saber que las cifras de la votación no le favorecían. Tan temerario fue su discurso que obligó a los uniformados a poner en claro que la Fuerza Armada no intervendría en cuestiones electorales, y que respetaría al elegido por los votantes.

Finalmente, El Salvador entra en una nueva fase de su existencia. Los banderines y las consignas partidarias y militantes se deslavan, la vida recobra sus ritmos. El nuevo presidente asume el poder el primero de junio, y son tan formidables los retos que le esperan que apenas se ponga al timón de la maquinaria estatal tendrá que arrancar en segunda.

La participación de los jóvenes fue nota predominante durante las elecciones presidenciales en El Salvador el pasado 2 de febrero. En la foto se aprecia a estos jóvenes, simpatizantes del izquierdista FMLN, con la ieónica imagen del Ché Guevara pintada en el rostro. / Róger Lindo

Los peligros que le aguardan al gobierno encabezado por Sánchez Cerén han empezado a asomar sus cabezas. El paso dado por el vecino país de Honduras ocupando militarmente y construyendo un helipuerto en un islote del golfo de Fonseca (un territorio marítimo que ambos países comparten con Nicaragua merced a un antiguo tratado), ha abierto una especie de “miniguerra fría” en la región. Las viejas heridas de la breve guerra de 1969 vuelven a supurar.

Sin embargo, Sánchez Cerén ha replicado a estos gestos apegándose a un guión de moderación, del buen vecino, poniendo los intereses integradores del istmo por encima de la disputa territorial. Poco después de que se oficializó su triunfo electoral, el presidente electo se embarcó en una gira por la región, incluida la República Dominicana, para buscar entenderse con sus futuros pares en temas comunes. A no dudarlo, se ha hablado en esos encuentros de los movimientos hondureños en el Golfo, sin dejar por fuera el hecho de que hace unos días un grupo de pescadores salvadoreños fueron ametrallados por lanchas patrulleras de Honduras.

Foto de Roger Lindo - Seguidores del Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional (FMLN) festejan el anuncio oficial declarando victoria de Salvador Sánchez Cerén en la segunda ronda electoral en marzo.

Seguidores del Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional (FMLN) festejan el anuncio oficial declarando victoria de Salvador Sánchez Cerén en la segunda ronda electoral en marzo. / Roger Lindo

Por otro lado, vale mencionar que el triunfo electoral del FMLN cambia el balance de fuerzas en la región centroamericana en favor de las izquierdas. Costa Rica acaba de elegir al centroizquierdista Luis Guillermo Solís, de 53 años, quien arrasó en segunda vuelta con la mayor cantidad de votos en la historia electoral de su país (1,03 millones de votos —78% de los sufragios— en el primer conteo). El presidente electo, que asumirá el poder el 8 de mayo, dijo en su discurso tras conocer los resultados electorales que “es el momento del cambio y la transformación” y que se siente “profundamente honrado” por el apoyo recibido en las urnas. Su Partido de Acción Ciudadana (PAC) gobernará por primera vez.

Muchos estarán observando El Salvador y el derrotero que este país seguirá en los próximos años, intrigados por saber si esta nación, que camina desde siempre al borde del abismo, encontrará un curso propio y efectivo para lidiar con sus males: desempleo crónico, un sistema educativo fallido, violencia endémica, entre muchos. Además de ser un país polarizado (el FMLN y ARENA prácticamente se repartieron los votos por la mitad en la segunda ronda), El Salvador de la posguerra es, en más de un sentido, una sociedad cerrada, y encerrada también, de pertinaces resistencias al cambio. Fácilmente los usos, por muy irresponsables que sean, terminan convertidos en ley. La cultura política desalienta la independencia y el espíritu crítico. Es decir, son tanto los rezagos sociales, como los culturales, los que hay que superar.

Pero si es un cambio de rumbo lo que busca la nueva administración, el nuevo presidente Sánchez Cerén tendrá que dar un golpe de timón, y esto incluye bregar con fuerzas opuestas, tanto dentro como fuera de su propio partido, y saber navegar con destreza en aguas desconocidas, y en ocasiones, traicioneras.

Róger Lindo es un escritor y periodista. Regresó a El Salvador después de 20 años en Los Ángeles, California, donde se desempeñó como periodista en el diario La Opinión. Entre su producción literaria se destacan la novela El perro en la niebla y el poemario Los infiernos espléndidos.


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